# Using stata_kernel and Emacs Orgmode for reproducible research goodness

This post is hopefully the last in a series of posts outlining how to use Stata in a proper dynamic document/reproducible research setting using Emacs. As of the summer of 2020, I am only using stata_kernel for my own work and no longer recommend using my customized ob-ipython.el for reasons described here.

This post shows the installation steps to get this working and some usability recommendations if using Org-mode. Before proceeding with anything below, make sure you complete the "Python Preliminaries" steps first.

The following will give you a quick idea of how things work once things are working properly:

## Running Stata Commands in Emacs

Once you have setup the python environment following the steps above, do this in emacs:

2. Ensure that you have activated the python environment where stata_kernel is available
3. Add the following lines to your init.el:

   (when (functionp 'module-load)
(use-package jupyter)
'((jupyter . t))))
(define-key jupyter-repl-mode-map (kbd "C-l") #'jupyter-repl-clear-cells)
(define-key jupyter-repl-mode-map (kbd "TAB") #'company-complete-common-or-cycle)
(define-key jupyter-org-interaction-mode-map (kbd "TAB") #'company-complete-common-or-cycle)
(define-key jupyter-repl-interaction-mode-map (kbd "C-c C-r") #'jupyter-eval-line-or-region)
(define-key jupyter-repl-interaction-mode-map (kbd "C-c M-r") #'jupyter-repl-restart-kernel)
(define-key jupyter-repl-interaction-mode-map (kbd "C-c M-k") #'jupyter-shutdown-kernel)
(setq company-backends '(company-capf))))
:config (set-face-attribute
'jupyter-repl-input-prompt nil :foreground "black")
:config (set-face-attribute
'jupyter-repl-output-prompt nil :foreground "grey")
(setq company-backends '(company-capf))))
(setq jupyter-repl-prompt-margin-width 4)))

;; associated jupyter-stata with stata (fixes fontification if using pygmentize for html export)
;; you **may** need this for latex output syntax highlighting


Additionally, remove ("ipython" . "ipython") and ("stata" . "stata") from 'org-babel-load-languages in your init.el (if you have ob-ipython installed).

## Usage

Stata code blocks need to look like this:

#+BEGIN_SRC jupyter-stata :session stata :kernel stata
sysuse auto
sum
#+END_SRC


Note the header arguments "jupyter-stata :session stata". The session name (in this case "stata") can be anything you'd like but can't be missing.

Running this code yields both code with syntax highlighting and output:

sum price trunk headroom


(1978 Automobile Data)

Variable |        Obs        Mean    Std. Dev.       Min        Max
-------------+---------------------------------------------------------
price |         74    6165.257    2949.496       3291      15906
trunk |         74    13.75676    4.277404          5         23
headroom |         74    2.993243    .8459948        1.5          5


Display the first 5 observations using the R-like head magic:

%head 5 if price > 3000

make price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length turn displacement gear_ratio foreign
1 AMC Concord 4099 22 3 2.5 11 2930 186 40 121 3.5799999 Domestic
2 AMC Pacer 4749 17 3 3 11 3350 173 40 258 2.53 Domestic
3 AMC Spirit 3799 22 . 3 12 2640 168 35 121 3.0799999 Domestic
4 Buick Century 4816 20 3 4.5 16 3250 196 40 196 2.9300001 Domestic
5 Buick Electra 7827 15 4 4 20 4080 222 43 350 2.4100001 Domestic

Note: In your Org-Mode buffer the above table doesn't display nicely (since by default it returns html). You might want to use the :display text/plain header argument while you are developing your document.

bstrap: regress price mpg headroom trunk

(running regress on estimation sample)

Bootstrap replications (50)
----+--- 1 ---+--- 2 ---+--- 3 ---+--- 4 ---+--- 5
..................................................    50

Linear regression                               Number of obs     =         74
Replications      =         50
Wald chi2(2)      =      15.48
Prob > chi2       =     0.0004
R-squared         =     0.2272
Root MSE          =  2629.1564

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   Observed   Bootstrap                         Normal-based
price |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
mpg |  -259.1057   67.92036    -3.81   0.000    -392.2271   -125.9842
headroom |  -334.0215   318.7159    -1.05   0.295    -958.6932    290.6503
_cons |   12683.31   2209.929     5.74   0.000     8351.933     17014.7
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


### Displaying and Exporting Graphics

One notable "gotcha" that has always been an issue is that state_kernel uses the console version (on linux) of stata which is fully functional with one exception: stata cannot output png files when displaying or exporting graphics. stata_kernel sidesteps this by producing svg graphics along with pdf graphics files for each figure displayed in the notebook. This causes some difficulties that vary depending on what we are looking for (showing figures inline in emacs, exporting to html, or exporting to pdf). I gather that these issues aren't relevant for Windows (not sure about MAC).

If we wish to display a histogram of price in the Emacs buffer, we can execute this:

#+BEGIN_SRC jupyter-stata :session stata
hist price
#+END_SRC

(bin=8, start=3291, width=1576.875)


This front-end cannot display the desired image type.


While the html export you are viewing above isn't a good result, in the Emacs buffer we will always see a displayed image in buffer:

Exporting to html is the primary issue with this method. Additionally, we have the warning message : This front-end cannot display the desired image type. This is because the results are returning a pdf of the image which orgmode can't deal with. We can eliminate this by running the magic

%set graph_svg_redundancy False


#### A robust approach for viewing and exporting Graphics

To sidestep this problem and have a more general solution, I suggest the following strategy: continue to use the results from codeblock execution to view figures inside Emacs, but also save them to disk and then reference them manually in orgmode for more robust exporting.

#+BEGIN_SRC jupyter-stata :session :kernel stata :exports code
hist price
graph export "/tmp/hist.svg", replace
#+END_SRC


Then we can manually add a link to this file in our orgmode document via [[/tmp/hist.svg]], to include the histogram in a way that should be robust to whatever document type we wish to export to. It is worth noting that in the Emacs buffer, you will likely see the image twice (one in the results object that we aren't exporting, and one for the manual link you've created). You can turn off the second of these by toggling org-toggle-inline-images.

This method has the added benefit of better/customized placement for figures using org-mode #+attr_html or #+attr_latex directives.

## Conclusion

This post shows how to use stata_kernel with Emacs. The method outlined here is superior to one that uses an updated version of ob-stata.el and Emacs Speaks Statistics (ESS) that I wrote about over a year ago as Stata support there has been deprecated for current releases and my modified script no longer works (ie. > Summer 2020). Even the somewhat inconvenient way of dealing with graphical output is no worse than what was required before.